Some permits, specifically those which involve changes to the exterior of your property, will require a zoning review. In these cases, you will be asked to submit a copy of your plot plan (property survey) so that Randolph's zoning official can review your project for compliance with the zoning ordinance.
If you cannot comply with the zoning ordinance for any reason, you must obtain a variance from the board of adjustment before your project can proceed. The zoning official is charged with the responsibility of enforcing the zoning ordinance but she may not waive its requirements. That power is granted by law to the board of adjustment. If your project requires a variance, she will explain the application process to you.
Remember…construction permit applications for projects which change the footprint of the building, lot coverage, use of the space, etc. may also require a zoning approval.